Projects

FINAL PROJECT

SECTION 1

In the advertisement created by Abbey Mainali, a child can be seen running up a staircase of books to reach his destination: the future. Above that scene the advertisement includes text that says “Learn to SAVE for a bright future.” Additionally, directly to the right of the image described above, three identical lightbulbs are vertically aligned, each with a single word written in its center. Starting from the top, the first lightbulb says “Taxes,” the middle lightbulb says “Budget,” and the final lightbulb says “Insurance.”

This advertisement presents the case that in order for today’s youth to secure a bright future, they must learn some fundamental concepts of personal finance. Perhaps this advertisement was created to encourage youngsters to begin researching terms like taxes, budgets, and insurance.

Abbey’s artistic talent is clearly displayed through the creation of the image in the advertisement. A wide selection of colors is used to spike the interest of the audience in the message of this advertisement. Even with the nature of this slippery slope argument, the ad successfully convinces its viewers that by learning to save, people can ultimately secure a bright future.

SECTION 2

Ethos

“Pleasantly surprised” (Paragraph 1): Showing readers that the author is human and has emotions similar to theirs is always a useful method for building rapport.

Pathos

No appeal to emotion found: A fault that can often be exposed in most of my writing is that I fail to appeal to the audience’s emotions. Even though humans are emotional creatures, I have developed the belief that emotional arguments or techniques are to be frowned upon. In actuality, arguments involving emotions can be very powerful and must be incorporated in future works of mine. Imagine how awful it would feel to develop the most logically compelling argument, only to have it dismissed since no emotions were triggered within the reader. The pain of failing to convert the audience to the writer’s beliefs would be immeasurable; therefore, all writers must include emotional elements to their writing. Not doing so risks the effectiveness of all arguments.

Logos

Explanation of photo (Paragraph 2): By describing the impact of the photo included at the beginning of the article, the audience can get a glimpse into how the author perceives certain information. This paragraph would have exponentially increased in effectiveness if the author had included, at the bare minimum, a brief description of the photo discussed.

 

The path leading to success as a rhetorician is different for all. Since all writers have different levels of experience and practice employing the tools of rhetoric, no two people pursue success as a rhetorician the same way. Like all things in life there is always room for improvement in my writing. I trust the Path of Progress and firmly believe that with my newly found awareness and application of various rhetorical techniques, I can become more successful as a rhetorician with each piece of writing I complete.

SECTION 3

  • Purpose – The purpose of any work of writing is the author’s objective for writing the piece. Every work of writing has some sort of objective even though some are more serious than others. For instance, some works of writing may have the purpose of entertainment, while others have the primary objective of persuading a politician to refuse to introduce potentially damaging legislation.
  • Tone – Similar to purpose, each work of writing employs a certain tone. Tone is the attitude or feelings of the author about the subject being discussed. For instance, a liberal in Texas who vehemently opposes legislation allowing citizens to purchase firearms might put together a blog post expressing aa frustrated tone as he makes a case for increased gun control.
  • Audience – Greatly connected with purpose is the writer’s audience. A writer’s audience is the intended group of people that the author hopes to reach. Types of audiences are based on, but are not limited to, demographic, publication following, and hobbies.

I chose the above three rhetorical terms: purpose, tone, and audience since they are each critical components of writing and can be observed in almost all works of writing. Writing without a purpose, tone, or audience is relatively impossible.

SECTION 4

An effective research and writing process is one that contains all of the necessary steps to complete a project in a timely manner. A general rule of thumb for any process would include the following:

  • A period of analyzing the task at hand
  • A brief ideation session to determine methods for completing that task
  • An assessment of strengths that can be leveraged to complete the task
  • An assessment of general pitfalls to avoid when completing the task
  • Creating a written plan with dates and mini tasks that result in the completion of the greater task
  • Execution of the previous step (the written plan)
  • Reviewing the completed task to ensure it effectively completes the task
  • Waiting approximately a day or two
  • Edit / revise the completed task
  • Submit

My writing process unfortunately has not evolved much this semester. Throughout the majority of the semester I employed a “complete as I go” sort of process where anything goes. Thankfully my final two assignments (Project 3 and the Final Exam) were completed ahead of their due dates and with the incorporation of the basic elements of planning. This is evidence of a growing trend in planning assignments which would ultimately lead to the elimination of procrastination, something I have been fighting hard to destroy.

The progression of developing a blank Microsoft Word document into a meaning work of writing is best accomplished by initiating the process with the production of the world famous sh*tty first draft. By simply executing and beginning a task, writers can avoid perfection paralysis and actually get work done. The hardest period of any project or endeavor is the initial phase. What the burdening inertia of a blank page is no longer an issue, writers can go back improve the quality of their work. In fact, often times writers will notice that their first draft wasn’t so sh*tty after all.

After a semester of English 2150, I have come to realize that the most critical aspect of the research and writing process for me is planning. Each student will have a different takeaway; my critical takeaway is to put emphasis on the planning phase because it seems to be my most harmful obstacle. The writing and research process itself does not trouble me. Completing tasks in a timely fashion does. Therefore, with effective planning sessions before completing projects, I would be better equipped to complete research and writing tasks to my best ability.

SECTION 5

The audience of a writing sample affects everything that is written from the content itself to the rhetoric infused into the sample. Understanding the demographics of a target audience can help any writer more effectively convey a message to and build rapport with readers. Since varying demographics will inevitably have varying values and aspirations, it is critical for any writer to thoroughly understand the needs of his or her target audience. Understanding these emotional and closely held values empowers writers to more effectively appeal to and be embraced by a target audience. With an understanding of these values, writers can then utilize the appropriate forms of rhetoric to persuade or manipulate the audience.

The importance of logical fallacies cannot be over stated. When receiving information, understanding logical fallacies is critical because it allows readers to carefully filter information while avoiding the lure of manipulation. At the very minimum, people should be aware of a number of logical fallacies in order to maintain clarity when inundated with information. Moreover, it is equally important for writers to be familiar with logical fallacies in order to effectively extract a desired response from the writer’s audience. Writers must take advantage of the simple truth that most people are not aware of the various logical fallacies that manipulate people on a daily basis. By taking full advantage of this harsh truth, the writer’s will is in full control of the readers’ beliefs.

Rhetorical manipulation can be found all around us and is one of the most underrated threats people face on a daily basis. When someone is rhetorically manipulated successfully, he or she is unaware that the author has deliberately changed their belief system. An author can rhetorically manipulate his audience by effectively deploying a number of rhetorical techniques and logical fallacies in order to strong-arm the audience to adapt a new point of view. Different words have the ability to spike different emotions within the reader. For instance, the word “mother” has a much more loving connotation than the word “mom.” It is this subtle distinction in word choice that, when combined with other elements, aid an author in rhetorically manipulating an audience.

PROJECT 3

TO: ramole@aol.com – Robert Alan Mole, President of American Literacy Council

CC: Professor Rosenberg, ENG 2150 – JWFA

FROM: zain.chamoun@zachmultim.com – Zain Chamoun, CEO of ZaCh Multimedia

SUBJECT: Opportunity for Expansion – May 10, 2017

Robert,

In an age where the legitimacy of information is often in question, it is not unreasonable for the American people to swallow most messages from the media with a grain of salt. This absence of trust in major news sources (organizations that should be providing our people with information they can rely on) is unfavorable and unfortunate; however, this current period of skepticism in the media has opened the largest gate of opportunity for the American Literacy Council.

Since its founding, your organization has positioned itself as a premier destination for everything related to literacy in America. Your existing audience has demonstrated loyalty by embracing the content you provide. This proves to our company that even in this age of sensational (and often false) headlines, organizations like your own will tighten their grip on the quality content and integrity that their reputation has been built upon.

It is our belief in your organization’s message and purpose that fuels our enthusiasm to help you get that message out, which is why we have created the advertisement in the attachment. Should you choose to work with our company, we believe that the most impactful position for this advertisement would be in a half page spread under the Politics This Week section of the magazine The Economist. Since the improvement of the literacy rates in America is one of your most pressing goals, it is critical to strive to share your message with politicians and legislators. This is the only group of people who have the direct power to repair, improve, and expand our nation’s current education system, and as a result, improve literacy rates in America. Knowing that the Economist is a publication highly regarded by those in office, including an advertisement in this magazine would prove to be the most effective method for accomplishing your goals.

As the most powerful nation in the world, we simply cannot allow the 45 million functionally illiterate segment of our population to grow in number. Our nation’s leaders must realize the our political and economic dominance in the world will vanish, if an increased percentage of our population does not receive the education they need to be functionally literate. In a recent study conducted by the Organization for Cooperation and Economic Development, the United States ranked 16th out of twenty-three nations in literacy proficiency, 21st in numeracy proficiency, and 14th in problem solving in technology-rich environments. It is no secret that if our nation allows this period of ineffective education to continue, the fall of America as a global economic powerhouse will be imminent. The United States must exercise the patience required to adopt legislation that will lay the groundwork for a functionally literate society in the decades to come. This advertisement would enlighten politicians to our impending doom should they not take the dangers of a subpar education system seriously.

The print advertisement we created strives to show politicians the harsh reality of an inferior economy as the byproduct of a faulty education system. We incorporate the colors red, white, and blue to subconsciously appeal to the viewers’ sense of patriotism. We then provide a chart specifically aimed at appealing to the logical mind by having the left side of the chart illustrate the current hierarchy of economic powerhouses and the right side of the chart illustrate the future projection of economic powerhouses if the current education system remains unchanged.

ZaCh Multimedia looks forward to working hand in hand with the American Literacy Council to accomplish our unified vision for a more empowering and functionally literate America. The current disregard for the media provides an excellent opportunity for the American Literacy Council to expand. Allow us to play a role in your journey.

Best,

Zain Chamoun

CEO of ZaCh Multimedia

 

ATTACHMENT:

FINAL PROJECT AD

References:

“LITERACY IN AMERICA: BEYOND THE BASICS.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 25 Sept. 1986. Web. 23 Apr. 2017.

Edward B. Fiske, in his article, Literacy in America: Beyond the Basics, details the main issues with the American education that can hinder the growth of our economy. Written in 1986, this articles pinpoints the possible trend in literacy rates of American society if the education system is not reformed in a way that allows for the development of deeper thinking skills. A study is referenced in the article that proves that the majority of the country is familiar with the most basic literacy skills. However, roughly one fifth of the population cannot perform beyond eight grade standards. Fiske concludes his article on a hopeful note, indicating that it is far easier to teach a population critical thinking skills once they already can perform basic tasks, as opposed to having to teach adults basic tasks from the beginning.

This article is relevant to my project since it discusses the issues of literacy in America. Since this article was written in the mid 1980s, I can use this in my project by discussing the trends in American education and literacy. I will use this article as a baseline for what American literacy rates were, and compare this information to how literacy rates are now. How our nation’s approach to dealing with this issue changed? Are we making progress in making our population more educated? This article will serve me as my benchmark.

Literacy Project Foundation – Statistics. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2017.

The National Institute for Literacy, National Center for Adult Literacy, The Literacy Company, and The U.S. Census Bureau have all presented statistics that shed light on the staggering literacy statistics of the United States. The article from the Literacy Project Foundation has summarized the findings of the above sources and divided their article into four sections: California, the Nation, the Economy, and Impact on Society. Various straight forward facts that have been collected by the organizations found above are presented in these sections.

I will use this article to help guide me with my third project by possibly using the facts in my advertisement to add some shock value. I can also use these facts to help me construct my letter to the advertising agency to attempt to convince them to publish my advertisement. Since the organizations supplying the facts listed in the article are some of the most reliable in the country, I can easily gain credibility by referencing them in either my advertisement or my letter or both.

“Troubling Stats on Adult Literacy.” U.S. adults rank below average in global survey of basic education skills. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2017.

The article “Troubling Stats on Adults Literacy,” written by Megan Rogers from insidehighered.com, highlights the low performance of adults in America when compared to other nations. Three versions of literacy were tested and measured: general literacy (decoding written words and sentences and comprehending, interpreting and evaluating complex texts), numeracy (solving problems involving math), and problem solving in technology rich environments (solving personal, civic or work problems using a computer). The study found that the United States underperforms nations in Europe and Asia. The main focus of this article is not the illiteracy of America’s youth, but of the illiteracy of adults in America (included those with college credentials).

This article will serve me well for my third project because direct comparisons are made with twenty-three other nations. Although the means in which this data was obtained has not been presented, this article will still prove useful since it clearly shows that there is plenty of room for improvement within the United States. However, it is important to dig deeper into how literacy is evaluated in the nations that have been compared to the United States. For all we know, the United States simply has much higher standards than other countries; and for that reason, appears to be underperforming when in fact our nations’ literacy rates exceed all.

 

PROJECT PODCAST

A

The second episode of Season 8 of the podcast Words incorporated a method of presenting a study and then presenting another study that further explores the concept presented in the initial study. In other words, as the show continues, the studies presented dive deeper into the preceding study. For instance, at the very beginning of the show, the first study conducted was one with mice. The result of this study was that mice cannot connect the concepts of color and direction. The next study presented determined that babies, until the age of six, had this same issue. The following study concluded that grown adults can be compared to the rats by eliminating their ability to process language. As the show continued, even more studies were built on each other in order to fully explain their ideas.

B

The show is structured in three main segments:

  1. Beginning – The anecdote of a man of Mayan descent who does not grasp the concept of language.
  2. Middle – A series of studies presented building the case that language and words play a larger role in our lives than we think.
  3. End – Circling back to the opening anecdote about the man of Mayan descent who, after some time, began to embrace the concept of language and has experienced drastic changes in his life because of it.

These segments are structured perfectly because the Beginning can serve as a hook, the Middle provides evidence for a number of ideas, and the End illustrates the validity of the evidence presented in the Middle.

C

The function of facts in the show was that of ammunition to support their claim of the importance of language in thought. Facts were typically derived from studies and experiments that were conducted in order to shed light on the relationship between thought and words. Anecdotes, as I perceived them, served as a way to make their ammunition more appealing. Generally, I believe anecdotes should rarely be considered when attempting to prove an idea. This is because anecdotes only represent one perspective and one condition in which an argument is true. On the other hand, citing statistics and findings from experiments are much more convincing since it represents a much broader scope of test subjects. There was one anecdote that served this episode perfectly and that was the story of the woman who gave a Ted Talk about her stroke. This incident made me remember how fragile a fully functioning life is and how it should be treasured. Anecdotes as powerful as this one can make a significant impact on how an idea is accepted.

D

The audio elements of this show have the potential to enhance the absorption of information presented; however, most sound effects were frustrating for me and forced me to find a way to cancel them out. When listening to an argument, I prefer to hear ideas presented in their entirety, not broken or interrupted by crying babies. I believe that the integration of sound effects can help a percentage of the podcast’s listeners by giving them a second to absorb the information shared. At the same time, this integration of sound effects can actually hinder others from comprehending their point since the presented idea was explained in fragments.

E

The three things I learned from this episode of the podcast are:

  1. There is an uncomfortably high number of people in the world who cannot comprehend the concept of language and do not know that every object has a name.
  2. A seemingly simple concept can be multifaceted if one is familiar with the correct terminology.
  3. The third idea I learned hasn’t been fully accepted yet. The show presents the notion that human thinking does not exist without words. I do not entirely agree with this because I believe humans have three “languages” of thinking: vision, hearing, and feeling. I believe it is possible to think of a scenario without needing words. Moreover, I believe humans can relive an emotion from a particular time in their lives and also not have to involve words. But then again, maybe humans can only do things like this BECAUSE of our understanding of words. This idea warrants further investigation.

F

Science based podcasts must have an idea presented, and information, statistics, and/or studies that support that idea. Most science based podcasts would attempt to enlighten listeners to new ideas; this enlightening would only be accomplished if the producers of the podcast present a sufficient amount of information that was gathered from their research. A personal narrative podcast would have different objectives because not much learning would take place from tuning in to the podcast. Unless the personal narrative shares valuable life lessons or a how-to information session, not much value is transferred to the listeners. These podcasts can still be highly interesting and entertaining, they just wouldn’t be viewed as credible sources of information. It should also be noted that personal narrative style podcasts would not need to include various sources of information to be effective.

G

Overall I was highly intrigued by the show. The discussion format of the podcast did take some getting used to since I am more familiar with podcasts that follow an interview format. The first eleven minutes and forty seconds of the show were very hard to pass through because I was not used to all of the sound effects and all of the different voices I heard. After eleven minutes and forty seconds had passed, I had obtained a better grasp of the overall flow of the podcast and was closely following the string of experiments that were cited and explained to prove the importance of words in our lives.

PROJECT 1

Zain Chamoun

Professor Rosenberg

ENG 2150 – JWFA

3 March 2017

My Academic Writing Journey

THE PRE-BOOM ERA

Writing is a form of punishment.

From the beginning of my school life, Junior Pre-K at St. Finbar Elementary School, until my sophomore year at Midwood High School, the notion that writing was a form of punishment was one of my deepest beliefs.

After receiving my fair share (boat load) of actual written punishment in elementary school, my least favorite of which being the task of writing the numbers one through five hundred, I had grown to carry my early association of writing and punishment to later stages of my academic life. As I progressed year by year, assignments began to increase in length and complexity and with it, a growing hatred for the art of writing.

The inability to effectively convey ideas in writing can most likely be charged to my negative emotions toward writing. In other words, since I unconsciously associated writing with punishment, it did not make sense for me attempt to improve my writing because I would be indirectly punishing myself to a greater extent. Unsurprisingly, I always dreaded being given writing assignments because 1) I felt punished and 2) My writing never made sense. My writing was so poorly constructed that a sample of it would provide no more meaning that presenting someone with the alphabet and having that same person attempt to decipher my message.

Most frustrating for me was knowing that I was able to communicate my thoughts effectively in conversation, but as soon as I had a pen in hand and a paper in front of me, all cohesive thought began to dwindle away.

My dear mother noticed this and was gravely concerned with my inferior written communication skills. She shared all of her study habits that she used to get through dental school and guided me on how I could implement them for the improvement of my writing. I still remember her two most prominent suggestions:

“Read more books!”

“The dictionary is your best friend!”

I heard her, but I never listened.

Her efforts were proven futile since I was stuck in my dogmatic mindset of disbelief in my ability to write. In fact, contrary to the old adage, I firmly believed that I had three certainties in life: death, taxes, and poor writing skills.

As the years dragged on writing always seemed to be a part of the curriculum, similar to a dark cloud following me around like in one of those anti-depressant commercials. Then the night before a writing assignment was due, the dark cloud turned into that mosquito in the tropics that fights you back and calls his friends over when you give him a hard time. For thirteen years, I have had this struggle of negativity and incompetence in the chore of writing. Little did I know that this negativity and incompetence would not last much longer.

THE POST BOOM ERA

The summer between my sophomore and junior years of high school, for a reason I am still not consciously aware of, marked the turning point of the largest ethical shift in my life. That summer I committed myself to a lifelong journey of improvement in every activity I was engaged in. I realized that it would be unethical for me to not strive for constant progression in all areas of my life. I was awakened to the truth that continual development is my duty and moral responsibility. With this new found realization and clarity, I indirectly was fully committed to actively improving my writing.

During my junior year of high school, I happened to one of a lucky batch of students who were placed in journalism class. The objective of the class was to fill the school newspaper with engaging stories for the rest of Midwood to read and for each of us to become more effective writers. This class marks the beginning of my journey as an academic writer.

Each Monday, our class would shift our desks to form a “discussion circle” and each student would present three interesting news articles that he or she read the previous week. The consistent reading of the Wall Street Journal coupled with my own independent-from-school reading began to expose me to different styles of writing and different methods writers use to convey their points.

By being having a clear purpose (serving the rest of Midwood High School) and by having the medium to achieve that purpose, the desire to improve my writing exponentially increased in ways that would not have been possible with the absence of that purpose.

Moreover, I find it relatable when in the final paragraph of his essay, Why I Write, George Orwell writes,

“…it is invariably where I lacked political purpose that I wrote lifeless books and was betrayed into purple passages, sentences without meaning, decorarive adjectives and humbug generally.”

The notion that writing must serve a purpose in order to be meaningful is categorically true. George Orwell explains that the work he is most proud of was work that served a political purpose. For instance, Animal Farm was the first book Orwell wrote that he purposely tried to integrate politics and the art of writing into one. Although Animal Farm was published in 1945, it still remains a popular and relevant work of literature used by many educational institutions and loved by millions around the world.

Throughout my year in Midwood’s journalism class, I was able to make great stride in improving the quality of my academic writing. The most pure form of academic writing is not some essay infused with jargon and esoteric ideas; rather, pure academic writing should be concerned with developing solid arguments in support of their primary objective. Academic writing should provide immediate value and clarity to its readers or lay the groundwork for fruitful discussions about the topic at hand. By the end of my junior year as a student in Midwood’s journalism class, I had made significant progress in both my sentence structure, and overall organization of ideas.

By the time my senior year rolled around I had been an avid reader for about a year. Gone were the days that Netflix was the go to platform to kill spare time (although I have not cancelled my subscription because there are only two shows I care watch and both must not be missed: The Walking Dead and House of Cards). I felt it was time to take more aggressive steps in the improvement of my written communication skills so I applied to an AP English class and signed up for Midwood’s newly founded debate team.

As a student in Midwood’s AP English class, I was given the opportunity to study rhetorical techniques with like-minded students who had a deep desire to improve their writing. In the class we deconstructed effective works of writing and critiqued pieces of writing that needed improvement. This level of analysis coupled with numerous writing projects allowed all students including myself to continue to apply the tactics and strategies that we learned in class; thus, improving the quality of our written communication skills.

As a debater on Midwood’s new debate team, I was fully engaged in figuring out ways to make speeches and rebuttals more persuasive and impactful in nature. This in turn helped me realize why certain words worked more than other words when both had the same meaning. I explored how the connotations of certain words can have a substantial subconscious impact on the meaning of a word or phrase. For instance, in most cases, the word “mother” and “mom” have the same meaning, yet one has a more nurturing connotation than the other. By applying this logic to the construction of my debate speeches, I was able to improve the impact of their delivery.

Transferring what I have learned throughout my final two years in high school, I am better equipped to meet the demands of assignments in college. In hindsight I have come to realize that the simple advice from my mother to read more books was right once again. Through involvement in Baruch’s Model United Nations Team and consistent reading of both class related material books of my choosing, I am in the ideal position to continue my journey of improving both my academic writing and my written communication skills overall.

Project 2

Zain Chamoun

Professor Rosenberg

ENG 2150 – JWFA

29 March 2017 (LATE SUBMISSION)

Cracking the Code

The study of multilingualism and its role in everyday life is a critical component of developing a deeper understanding of how humans interact with one another. To most people, multilingualism refers to the use of multiple languages like English, French, and German. However, multilingualism encompasses a much broader scope of our use of language. People, whether unconsciously or tactically, have the tendency to alter the delivery of their message according to their audience. This phenomenon is likely to be fueled by humans’ burning desire to blend in and be accepted by a group or discourse community. According to James Paul Gee in Literacy, Discourse, and Linguistics: Introduction, all too often people associate language with grammar and neglect to acknowledge the way in which language is used. The delicate art of manipulating the delivery of a language to various environments or communities is called codeswitching. Rosamina Lowi, in Codeswitching: An Examination of Naturally Occurring Conversation, supports the notion that codeswitching contributes to the preservation of a groups’ identity. Moreover, tonality, jargon, and pronunciation, adjusted in varying combinations, not only alter the meaning of a message, but form the building blocks of the default language of a group. After two 24-hour data gathering sessions, I have concluded that I only have two codes that I switch between: Zain Level 1 and Zain Level 2.

My first data gathering session was from 6:00AM March 16th until 6:00AM March 17th. My second data gathering session took place from 6:00AM March 27th until 6:00AM March 28th. These days were deliberately chosen to ensure that both social interaction extremes were taken into account. In other words, March 16th was a Thursday, a day I typically spend with minimal interactions with others. On a typical Thursday, I would either spend the day at work as a sales associate or at home reading and completing school related tasks. On the other hand, March 27th was chosen since it represents a day in the week with a higher concentration of dialogue with others. Nearly all Mondays are spent in Baruch; my first class begins at 9:05AM and my last class finishes at 8:45PM. The time in between classes create multiple windows for interactions with others; thus, providing plenty of opportunities to collect data.

During both gathering sections, the precise duration of speaking time (rounded to the nearest second) was recorded using an iPhone. To ensure the accuracy and quality of the accumulated data, I always held my iPhone in hand, something I rarely do. This ensured that I never forgot to record dialogue during the day. Every time I spoke, I pressed the “Start” button on my iPhone’s “Clock” mobile application. Once I had finished speaking, I pressed the “Stop” button. I then would record the time spent speaking on the “Notes” application on my iPhone, and would transfer this data to a sheet of paper by the end of the data gathering session.

Once the process was repeated for both data collection days, I analyzed the data to determine what, if any, codeswitching took place. After analyzing all elements of the data, it was concluded that I only implement two types of codes: Zain Level 1 and Zain Level 2. Zain Level 1 is my standard, default code of communication. This code is typically observed in casual encounters with those whom I am less familiar with and in settings where anything less than formal dialogue is frowned upon. Common circumstances that this code was observed include, but are not limited to: ordering coffee, performing group related tasks in class, and speaking with professors. Zain Level 2 is very similar to Zain Level 1; however, Level 2 has a much more playful frame than my default mode of communication. Common circumstances that permit this code include, but are not limited to: Speaking with close friends and interacting with others in a fitness center. The pie charts below represent the percentages of my total spoken time that I spent in a particular code.

Graph 1 for Project 2

Day 1

Graph 2 for Project 2

Day 2

Conducting this experiment has disproven my hypothesis that I only use one language. Since I only know English and never noticed any variation in the delivery of my speech, I (foolishly) immediately assumed that this experiment would provide no real value. It turns out, the opposite is true. This experiment taught me how immediate presuppositions, more often than not, are faulty ones. It is only through experimentation that people are able to uncover the facts about the topic at hand. In this case, I came to the realization that codeswitching does in fact play a role in my life. The variance in the code of my language is not dictated by changes in group dynamics but by separate individuals. When in one-on-one interactions with specific relatives or close friends, the tendency to transition to a less serious frame of language (Zain Level 2) is observed. Thus, executing this experiment shed light on the notion that codeswitching of any sort, no matter how subtle, plays a role in the character and behavior of a person.

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